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Components of a GIS

A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing real-world objects and events. components of GIS is the element fro which GIS system is built.

GIS technology combines common database operations like querying and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits provided by maps.

A functional GIS consists of five major components: hardware, software, data, people, and methods.

  1. Hardware

The computer on which a GIS runs is referred to as its hardware.

GIS software now runs on a variety of hardware platforms, ranging from centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in standalone or networked configurations.

2. Software

GIS software includes the functions and tools required to store, analyze, and display geographic data. Important software components include: tools for entering and manipulating geographic data; a database management system (DBMS); and tools for geographic query, analysis, and visualization.

A graphical user interface (GUI) allows for quick access to tools.

3. Data

The data is possibly the most important aspect of a GIS.

Geographic data and related tabular data can be gathered in-house or obtained from a commercial data provider.

A GIS will integrate spatial data with other data resources and can even manage spatial data using a DBMS, which is used by most organizations to organize and maintain their data.


Without the people who manage the system and develop plans for applying it to real-world problems, GIS technology has limited value.

GIS users range from technical specialists who design and maintain the system to those who use it in their daily work.

5. Methods

A successful GIS follows a well-designed plan and business rules, which are the models and operating practices that are specific to each organization.

How this system works ?

A geographic information system (GIS) stores information about the world as a collection of thematic layers that can be linked together geographically.

This simple but extremely powerful and versatile concept has proven invaluable in solving a wide range of real-world problems, including tracking delivery vehicles, recording details of planning applications, and modeling global atmospheric circulation.

components of GIS

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