A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer program that captures, stores, checks, and displays data about locations on the Earth’s surface.
GIS can help individuals and organizations better understand spatial patterns and relationships by connecting seemingly unrelated data.
The White House defines spatial data infrastructure as the technology, policies, standards, human resources, and related activities required to acquire, process, distribute, use, maintain, and preserve spatial data. GIS technology is a critical component of spatial data infrastructure.
GIS allows you to compare and contrast many different types of information. Data about people, such as population, income, or education level, can be included in the system.
It may contain information about the landscape, such as the location of streams, various types of vegetation, and various types of soil. It may include information about the locations of factories, farms, and schools, as well as storm drains, roads, and power lines.
People can use GIS technology to compare the locations of various things in order to discover how they relate to one another.
For example, using GIS, a single map could include both polluting sites, such as factories, and polluting sensitive sites, such as wetlands and rivers. A map like this would assist people in determining where water supplies are most vulnerable.
what is the benefit of GIS over other system ?
- Spatial linkages and linear networks can be seen using GIS technology. Topography, such as agricultural fields and waterways, can be displayed through spatial relationships. They may also show land-use patterns, such as where parks and housing complexes are located.
- GIS technology also enables users to dive deep in a specific area with various types of information.
- GIS maps can be used to display data about numbers and density.
- GIS technology can sometimes provide users with additional information about specific areas on a map.