A) FLIR : (Forward Looking InfraRed)
Systems work in a similar way as across-track thermal imaging sensors, but provide an oblique view of the Earth’s surface rather than a nadir view. it is a types of less common sensors
FLIR systems, which are typically mounted on planes or helicopters and image the region ahead of the platform, provide reasonably high spatial resolution imaging for military applications, search and rescue operations, law enforcement, and forest fire monitoring.
Apart from FLIR, there have been several producers of thermal infrared cameras since the 1950s. Unless referring to a FLIR branded camera, using the name FLIR in reference to all thermal cameras is no longer accurate.
Special lenses and sensors are required to focus and detect electromagnetic radiation in the MWIR (midwave infrared) and LWIR (longwave infrared) frequencies in order to “see” emitted heat.
Thermal energy is detected by specific FPAs in hermal infrared imaging sensors (Focal Plane Arrays). There are two types of FPAs: cooled detectors and uncooled detectors.
Cooled detectors are available to improve detection efficiency. Because we’re looking for radiated heat, any heat from the camera’s components makes it more difficult to perceive the scene’s image.
LWIR (Long Wave Infrared Cameras) are the most common type of FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) thermal infrared surveillance cameras because they operate on a wavelength of 7 to 14 microns (7,000nm–14,000nm), which is where terrestrial temperature targets emit the majority of their infrared energy, and they don’t require any coolers or maintenance, unlike cooled thermal cameras.
B) Laser fluorosensor:
The LFS-P is a day and night oil type classification airborne laser fluorosensor with a nadir-looking (non-scanning) nadir-looking (non-scanning) nadir-looking (non-scanning) nadir-looking (non-scanning) nadir-looking (non The fourth generation laser fluorosensor from OPTIMARE was created to be used on a regular basis as part of a sophisticated aircraft maritime surveillance system.
OPTIMARE developed a laser fluorosensor with around one-third the size, weight, and power consumption of its predecessor, the LFS Light, thanks to more than two decades of expertise as well as advancements in opto-electronics and laser technology. Because to its ruggedized design and liquid-free cooling system, the instrument is low-maintenance.
a) Crude oil and petroleum product detection and classification
b) Fluorescing chemical detection and classification*
c) The thickness of optically thin oil coatings is measured.
d) Measurements of the sea level
- The only aerial devices for day and night remote classification of crude oil, petroleum products, and fluorescing compounds spilt at sea are laser fluorosensors.
- The ability to identify the type of marine pollution from the air can aid in the coordination of response measures as well as the prosecution of offenders.
C) Lidar: (Light Detection and Ranging)
It is a remote sensing technique for studying the Earth’s surface.
When these light pulses are integrated with additional data collected by the aerial system, exact three-dimensional information about the Earth’s shape and surface properties is generated.
A lidar instrument is made up of three parts: a laser, a scanner, and a specialized GPS receiver. The most frequent platforms for collecting lidar data over large areas are planes and helicopters.
Topographic and bathymetric lidar are two forms of lidar. Bathymetric lidar employs water-penetrating green light to determine seafloor and riverbed elevations, while topographic lidar uses a near-infrared laser to scan the land surface.
It enables scientists and mapping experts to analyze natural and man-made settings with precision, flexibility, and accuracy. Lidar is being used by NOAA scientists to create more accurate coastal maps, create digital elevation models for use in geographic information systems, and assist in emergency response operations, among other things.
D) RADAR: (radio detection and ranging)
An electromagnetic sensor is a device that detects, locates, tracks, and recognizes objects of various types over long distances.
It works by sending electromagnetic energy toward objects, which are referred to as targets, and then listening for echoes back. Aircraft, ships, satellites, automobiles, and celestial bodies, as well as birds, insects, and rain, might all be targets.
Aside from determining the presence, the location is also important.
Radar can occasionally determine the size and shape of such objects in addition to their location and velocity. Radar differs from optical and infrared sensing technologies in that it can detect faraway objects in bad weather and determine their range, or distance, with pinpoint accuracy.
Radar is a “active” sensing device in the sense that it has its own light source (a transmitter) for locating targets. It usually operates in the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with frequencies ranging from 400 megahertz (MHz) to 40 gigahertz (GHz) (GHz).
It has, however, been utilized for long-range applications at lower frequencies (frequencies as low as several megahertz, which is the HF [high-frequency], or shortwave] band) as well as optical and infrared frequencies (those of laser radar, or lidar).
Radar system circuit components and other hardware vary depending on the frequency utilized, and systems range in size from small enough to fit in the palm of your hand to those so large that they would fill several rooms.
These are the less common types of sensors used in remote sensing data collection techniques aout the surface of the earth.